GSB 7.1 Standardlösung

Ocean Surface Fluxes and Atmospheric Parameters

The Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite data record (HOAPS) is a completely satellite based climatology of precipitation, evaporation, freshwater budget, latent heat flux, total column water vapour, near surface specific humidity and near surface wind speed over the global ice free oceans. All variables are derived from recalibrated and intercalibrated measurements from SSM/I and SSMIS passive microwave radiometers, except for the SST, which is taken from AVHRR measurements. The data record utilises the
CM SAF SSM/I and SSMIS FCDR and includes uncertainty estimates for latent heat flux, evaporation, near surface specific humidity and near surface wind speed. Starting with version 4, total column water vapour and near surface wind speed are retrieved with a 1D-Var retrieval scheme. Other retrieval algorithms are described in Andersson et al. (2010). All HOAPS products have global coverage, i.e., within ±180° longitude and ±80° latitude, are only defined over the ice-free ocean surface and cover the period from July 1987 until December 2014. The products are available as monthly averages and 6-hourly composites on a regular latitude/longitude grid with a spatial resolution of 0.5° x 0.5° degrees. Further details on the products in general, on retrieval details and physical basis as well as on quality can be found in the Product User Manuals (PUM), the Algorithm theoretical basis Documents (ATBD) and the Validation Report (ValRep). The products can be ordered via the Web User Interface.

HOAPS Version History

In 1987, several groups at the Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) and the University of Hamburg (UHH) started the development of retrievals based on microwave observations. In 2007 a cooperation between MPI-M, UHH and CM SAF began to transfer HOAPS into the sustained and operational environment at CM SAF. Several versions of the HOAPS data set have been released since 1998.

1 1998MPI-M/UniHHFirst release
22006MPI-M/UniHHNew retrievals, including homogenisation; Major software redesign
32007MPI-M/UniHHPrecipitation retrieval update; new SST data set
3.12009CM SAFWVPA only, including error estimates
3.22010CM SAF/MPI-M/UniHHreprocessed SSM/I input data, extended temporal coverage 1987-2008
42017CM SAFincorporation of SSMIS data, utilisation of CM SAF SSM/I and SSMIS FCDR, extended temporal coverage, updated retrieval scheme, availability of uncertainty estimates


  • Andersson, A., Fennig, K., Klepp, C., Bakan, S., Graßl, H., and Schulz, J., 2010: The Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data-HOAPS-3, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 2, 215-234.
  • Andersson, A., Klepp, C., Fennig, K., Bakan, S., Graßl, H. and Schulz, J., 2011: Evaluation of HOAPS-3 ocean surface freshwater flux components, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 50, 379-398.
  • Kinzel, J., K. Fennig, M. Schröder, A. Andersson, K. Bumke, R. Hollmann, 2016: Decomposition of Random Errors Inherent to HOAPS-3.2 Near-Surface Humidity Estimates Using Multiple Triple Collocation Analysis. J. Atm. Oceanic Tech., 1455-1471, 33 (7).
  • Liman, J., Schröder, M., Fennig, K., Andersson, A., and Hollmann, R.: Uncertainty characterization of HOAPS 3.3 latent heat-flux-related parameters, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1793-1815,, 2018.
  • Schröder, M., Jonas, M., Lindau, R., Schulz, J., and Fennig, K., 2013: The CM SAF SSM/I-based total column water vapour climate data record: methods and evaluation against re-analyses and satellite. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 765-775.

MS / April2019

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